Call me old fashioned, but, I always fire ONLY the ammunition recommended by the manufacturer for a specifiic firearm. In the case of a .357 Magnum revolver, the manufacturer designates that the firearm is capable of firing both .38 Special and .357 Magnum ammunition. I have never seen a .38 Super with similar designation.
Keep in mind, the headspace on a rimless cartidge is measured from the back of the case to the front edge of the case. The 10 mm and .40 are different lengths so there would be a headspace problem. I wouldn't try it, especially with high pressure rounds like the .40!
its hard on the edge of the chamber. not recommended for 9mm and 38 super.
40sw and 10mm not as bad as long as the bullets are loaded long. most dont do that and it will work. could also probably use a can of wd40 and lighter as a poor mans flame thrower.
9mm heavier bullets can load long but 115 and 124/125 I doubt will get to 38 super lengths.
have heard using extractors wind up broke using 9mm in 38 supers that bit of info comes from brianenos forum.
maybe I got 9x21 mixed up with 38 super. maybe it was 9x21 that breaks extractors. cant imagine using 9mm in 38super can be any better. 9x21 is closer to 9mm than 38super get problems with 9x21 hate to see what happens with 38 super.